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Clin Shoulder Elb > Volume 18(3); 2015 > Article
Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow 2015;18(3):133-137.
DOI:    Published online September 30, 2015.
Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Primary Frozen Shoulder in a Korean Population: A Retrospective Analysis of 1,373 Cases
Chul Hyun Cho, Tae Won Koo, Nam Su Cho, Kyoung Jin Park, Bong Gun Lee, Dongju Shin, Sungwook Choi, Seung Hyun Cho, Myung Sun Kim, Sang Hun Ko, Chul Hong Kim, Jin Young Park, Yon Sik Yoo
1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea.
3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.
4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea.
6Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju, Korea.
7Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea.
8Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
9Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.
10Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
11Center for Shoulder, Elbow & Sports, Neon Orthopaedic Clinic, Seoul, Korea.
12Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong, Korea.
Received: 26 January 2015   • Revised: 26 April 2015   • Accepted: 28 April 2015
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with primary frozen shoulder in a Korean population.
A total of 1,373 patients whose shoulders were diagnosed with primary frozen shoulder across 11 resident-training hospitals were reviewed retrospectively. Various demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics according to gender and presence of diabetes were evaluated.
The average age of patients was 55.4 years. Gender proportion was 58.3% females and 41.7% males. The frozen shoulder involved the non-dominant arm in 60.7% of patients and the bilateral arms in 17.6% of patients. The average duration of symptoms was 8.9 months, and 51.3% of patients had experienced nocturnal pain. Comorbidities associated with frozen shoulder in our sample of patients included diabetes (18.7%), cardiovascular diseases (17.7%), thyroid diseases (5.4%), and cerebrovascular diseases (3.6%). The diabetic group was correlated with the following demographic and clinical characteristics: old age, involvement of the dominant arm, nocturnal pain, long duration of symptoms, and no history of trauma. Further, we found that, in males, having a frozen shoulder was significantly correlated with a history of trauma; in females, having a frozen shoulder was significantly correlated with having thyroid diseases.
These demographic data of primary frozen shoulder in the Korean population were consistent with those of previously reported epidemiologic studies. Primary frozen shoulder with diabetes was correlated with old age, bilateral involvement, long duration of symptoms, and nocturnal pain.
Key Words: Frozen shoulder; Primary; Risk factors; Diabetes mellitus
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